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      RS 30:2193     


§2193.  Land disposal of hazardous waste; restrictions; prohibition

A.  It is the determination of the legislature that Louisiana is particularly ill-suited both hydrologically and climatically to hazardous waste land disposal methods and past land disposal methods, siting criteria, and maintenance procedures have, despite the degree of stringency, been inadequate to insure the health of the citizens of the state and in maintaining the integrity of the environment generally and water resources specifically.  It is further determined that eventual releases of hazardous constituents from land disposal facilities are highly probable if land disposal methods continue to be relied upon and that there presently exists alternatives which may be used to destroy, reduce, or lessen the toxicity of or lessen the leaching potential of hazardous wastes.  In order to preclude further environmental damage and endangerment to the citizens of the state, it is the purpose of this Section to provide for restrictions and incentives designed to encourage alternative methods of hazardous waste disposal, destruction, and reduction; to lessen the possibility of hazardous waste releases from existing land disposal sites; and to provide for the eventual prohibition of land disposal of hazardous waste.

B.  As used in this Section, the following terms shall have the meaning ascribed to them in this Subsection, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

(1)  "Containment system" means a system designed to contain hazardous waste or materials within the confines of a hazardous waste disposal, storage, or treatment facility and operating within and according to the limits and conditions of its permit.

(2)  "Encapsulation" means the pressing or bonding together and completely enclosing within a coating or jacket of inert material so as to prevent leaching potential from a department approved hazardous waste containment system.

(3)  "Land disposal" means placement in or on the land and includes, but is not limited to, placement in a landfill, surface impoundment, waste pile, injection well, land treatment facility, salt-dome formation, salt-bed formation, underground mine or cave, or placement in a concrete vault or bunker intended for disposal purposes.

(4)  "Stabilization or Solidification" means the modification of wastes in a manner which ensures that the hazardous constituents are maintained in their least soluble form.

C.  The secretary shall promulgate rules and regulations which:

(1)  Identify generic categories of hazardous wastes that are inappropriate for land disposal and selected recycling, treatment, and destruction technologies applicable to waste streams in each category.

(2)  Identify the waste constituents that present the greatest risks when disposed of in the land.

(3)  Set target dates for the prohibition of land disposal of those wastes identified in Paragraph (2) based on:

(a)  The risks involved.

(b)  The availability of alternative facilities and methods within the state.

(4)  Use the following general characteristics to determine which wastes pose the greatest risk to public health and environment when disposed of in the land:

(a)  Toxicity.

(b)  Persistence in the environment.

(c)  Ability to bioaccumulate.

(d)  Mobility in a land disposal environment.

(5)  Provide for emergency variances.

(6)  Provide for an exception from the application of this Section for special wastes which include:

(a)  Spent bauxite (red mud) resulting from production of alumina.

(b)  Byproduct gypsum and related wastes resulting from the production of phosphoric acid, phosphate fertilizers, and hydrofluoric acid.

(c)  Coal residue (bottom ash and slag, fly ash, and flue-gas emission control waste) after use as a boiler fuel.

(d)  Cement kiln dust.

(e)  Industrial waste water in a NPDES treatment train when that train includes ponds, impoundments, or similar facilities.

(7)  Prohibit the storage of hazardous waste that has been banned from land disposal unless such storage is solely for the purpose of the accumulation of such quantities of hazardous waste as are necessary to facilitate proper recovery, treatment, or disposal by appropriate means.

D.(1)  Not later than January 1, 1986, the secretary shall determine what economically and technically feasible and environmentally sound alternatives are available in the state for processing, treating, destroying, recycling, reducing, or neutralizing the hazardous waste as identified in Subsection C.

(2)  Between January 1, 1986, and June 1, 1992, any hazardous waste for which there is no alternative disposal, destruction, reduction, or recycling method in the state shall be land disposed only after stabilization, solidification, containment, encapsulation, or approved land treatment techniques in a manner and with a material sufficient to prevent the leaching potential of such wastes except that the secretary may, upon a showing that no other reasonable alternative exists, permit the injection of hazardous waste in an injection well.  The burden of proof shall rest with the generators of such hazardous waste that they cannot meet the requirements of this Subsection, and the secretary shall determine the sufficiency and adequacy of such proof and evidence presented by generators.

E.(1)  Effective June 1, 1992, and thereafter, the land disposal of hazardous waste shall be prohibited, except as provided in this Subsection and by regulations promulgated by the secretary pursuant to Subsection C of this Section.

(2)  Any person seeking an exemption from the prohibition on the land disposal of hazardous waste shall file a written request for such exemption with the secretary.  The secretary, after considering reasonable economic and environmental alternatives, may allow the land disposal of certain hazardous waste if in his determination:

(a)  The best available technology cannot further reduce the toxicity, corrosiveness, virulent or infectious character, or volume of the hazardous waste.

(b)  The waste cannot be further reduced through production modifications.

(c)  The waste or specific constituents of the waste cannot be reclaimed and reused.

(d)  The waste can be permanently confined within a department-approved hazardous waste containment system.

(e)  The land disposal of the hazardous waste does not and will not endanger public health or the environment.

(f)  No reasonable alternative exists to the injection of hazardous waste in an injection well.

(3)  The burden of proof that the conditions of Paragraph (2) of this Subsection have been met shall rest with the person requesting the exemption.

(4)  Hazardous waste or residues thereof which have been treated to the level of or by a method specified in regulations promulgated under Subsection C of this Section shall not be subject to any prohibition promulgated under this Subsection, and may be disposed of in a land disposal facility which meets the requirement of this Subtitle.

(5)  Hazardous waste or residues thereof which have been granted a case-by-case extension, emergency variance, or variance pursuant to the regulations promulgated under Subsection C are not prohibited and may be disposed of in a land disposal facility which meets the requirements of this Subtitle.

(6)  Newly listed hazardous waste or residues thereof which have no treatment standard are not prohibited and may be disposed of in a land disposal facility which meets the requirements of this Subtitle until standards are established pursuant to the regulations promulgated under Subsection C.

F.  Any person found by the secretary to be in violation of any requirement or provision of this Section may be liable for a civil penalty of one hundred thousand dollars for each separate violation.

G.  This Section shall not apply to the land disposal of hazardous waste by injection well provided that:

(1)  Such land disposal has been exempted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency from land disposal prohibitions contained in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.

(2)  A permit has been issued for such injection well by the Louisiana office of conservation pursuant to Chapter 1 of Subtitle I of this Title and of the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300(f) et seq.

(3)  The secretary determines that there are no economically reasonable and environmentally sound alternatives to the injection of such hazardous waste.

Acts 1984, No. 803, §1; Acts 1986, No. 422, §1, eff. July 2, 1986; Acts 1987, No. 852, §1; Acts 1989, No. 485, §1; Acts 1990, No. 649, §1; Acts 1990, No. 979, §1, eff. July 25, 1990; Acts 1997, No. 548, §1, eff. July 3, 1997.

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